The Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE), a screening examination that assesses cognition in a brief but quantitative fashion, uses independent tests to evaluate functioning within five major cognitive ability areas: language, constructions, memory, calculations, and reasoning. The examination separately assesses level of consciousness, orientation, and attention. This instrument quickly identifies intact areas of functioning, yet provides more detailed assessment in areas of dysfunction. Standardization data are provided for 119 healthy adults (age range, 20 to 92 years) and for 30 patients receiving neurosurgical care for brain lesions (range, 25 to 88 years). Cognitive profiles for several common neuropsychiatric conditions illustrate the usefulness of this examination in clinical practice.