Prediction of functional results of percutaneous coronary interventions with virtual stenting and quantitative flow ratio

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2022 Dec;100(7):1208-1217. doi: 10.1002/ccd.30451. Epub 2022 Nov 2.


Background: The clinical value of residual quantitative flow ratio (rQFR), a novel function of QFR technique, is unknown.

Aim: We investigated the clinical value of rQFR, aimed to predict residual ischemia after virtual percutaneous coronary intervention (vPCI).

Methods: This is a substudy of the COE-PERSPECTIVE registry, which investigated the prognostic value of post-PCI fractional flow reserve (FFR). From pre-PCI angiograms, QFR and rQFR were analyzed and their diagnostic performance was assessed at blinded fashion using pre-PCI FFR and post-PCI FFR as reference, respectively. The prognostic value of rQFR after vPCI was assessed according to vessel-oriented composite outcome (VOCO) at 2 years.

Results: We analyzed 274 patients (274 vessels) with FFR-based ischemic causing lesions (49%) from 555 screened patients. Pre-PCI QFR and FFR were 0.63 ± 0.10 and 0.66 ± 0.11 (R = 0.756, p < 0.001). rQFR after vPCI and FFR after real PCI were 0.93 ± 0.06 and 0.86 ± 0.07 (R = 0.528, p < 0.001). The mean difference between rQFR and post-PCI FFR was 0.068 (95% limit of agreement: -0.05 to 0.19). Diagnostic performance of rQFR to predict residual ischemia after PCI was good (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.856 [0.804-0.909], p < 0.001). rQFR predicted well the incidence of 2-year VOCO after index PCI (AUC: 0.712 [0.555-0.869], p = 0.041), being similar to that of actual post-PCI FFR (AUC: 0.691 [0.512-0.870], p = 0.061). rQFR ≤0.89 was associated with increased risk of 2-year VOCO (hazard ratio [HR]: 12.9 [2.32-71.3], p = 0.0035). This difference was mainly driven by a higher rate of target vessel revascularization (HR: 16.98 [2.33-123.29], p = 0.0051).

Conclusions: rQFR estimated from pre-PCI angiography and virtual coronary stenting mildly overestimated functional benefit of PCI. However, it well predicted suboptimal functional result and long-term vessel-related clinical events.

Clinical trial registration: Influence of fractional flow reserve on the Clinical OutcomEs of PERcutaneouS Coronary Intervention (COE-PESPECTIVE) Registry, NCT01873560.

Keywords: PCI optimization; PCI outcomes; coronary angiography; coronary physiology; coronary stents; fractional flow reserve; percutaneous coronary intervention; quantitative flow ratio.

MeSH terms

  • Coronary Angiography / methods
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / diagnostic imaging
  • Coronary Artery Disease* / therapy
  • Coronary Vessels
  • Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial*
  • Humans
  • Percutaneous Coronary Intervention* / adverse effects
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Treatment Outcome

Associated data