From among the pregnant women in the Collaborative Perinatal Project of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, we identified 508 who had migraine, and 3192 who had no history of migraine, of taking headache medication during the previous 12 months, and of headaches during the pregnancy. Migraineurs smoked more heavily and had a longer smoking history than their headache-free peers. Among migraineurs, smokers were not more likely to consume analgesics than nonsmokers. Regardless of smoking classification, more migraineurs consumed tranquilizers, amphetamines, and sleeping pills than headache-free women. Among smokers only, migraine was associated with heart disease, thrombosis/phlebitis, asthma, peptic ulcer, and pneumonia. In nonsmokers, migraine was associated with drug sensitivity and other allergies.