Unique Molecular Identifiers and Multiplexing Amplicons Maximize the Utility of Deep Sequencing To Critically Assess Population Diversity in RNA Viruses

ACS Infect Dis. 2022 Dec 9;8(12):2505-2514. doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.2c00319. Epub 2022 Nov 3.


Next generation sequencing (NGS)/deep sequencing has become an important tool in the study of viruses. The use of unique molecular identifiers (UMI) can overcome the limitations of PCR errors and PCR-mediated recombination and reveal the true sampling depth of a viral population being sequenced in an NGS experiment. This approach of enhanced sequence data represents an ideal tool to study both high and low abundance drug resistance mutations and more generally to explore the genetic structure of viral populations. Central to the use of the UMI/Primer ID approach is the creation of a template consensus sequence (TCS) for each genome sequenced. Here we describe a series of experiments to validate several aspects of the Multiplexed Primer ID (MPID) sequencing approach using the MiSeq platform. We have evaluated how multiplexing of cDNA synthesis and amplicons affects the sampling depth of the viral population for each individual cDNA and amplicon to understand the relationship between broader genome coverage versus maximal sequencing depth. We have validated reproducibility of the MPID assay in the detection of minority mutations in viral genomes. We have also examined the determinants that allow sequencing reads of PCR recombinants to contaminate the final TCS data set and show how such contamination can be limited. Finally, we provide several examples where we have applied MPID to analyze features of minority variants and describe limits on their detection in viral populations of HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 to demonstrate the generalizable utility of this approach with any RNA virus.

Keywords: Primer ID; drug resistance mutation; next generation sequencing; template consensus sequence; unique molecular identifier; viral diversity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19*
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Humans
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • SARS-CoV-2 / genetics