Many competitive and recreational athletes perform resistance training as a part of their conditioning programmes. Resistance training in addition to increasing muscular strength and hypertrophy may also aid in the prevention of injuries. Research indicates that resistance training promotes growth and/or increases in the strength of ligaments, tendons, tendon to bone and ligament to bone junction strength, joint cartilage and the connective tissue sheaths within muscle. Studies involving humans and animal models also demonstrate resistance training can cause increased bone mineral content and therefore may aid in prevention of skeletal injuries. Investigations to date suggest resistance training can aid in injury prevention. The incidence of various types of overuse injuries, such as swimmers shoulder and tennis elbow, may be reduced by the performance of sport and/or motion specific resistance training activities. Screening of athletes for agonist and antagonist muscle strength imbalances can be utilised to identify possessing a predisposition for injury. Resistance training may then be performed to correct the imbalance and therefore reduce the incidence of injury.