Beneficial effects of celery seed extract (Apium graveolens), as a supplement, on anxiety and depression in hypertensive patients: a randomized clinical trial

Inflammopharmacology. 2023 Feb;31(1):395-410. doi: 10.1007/s10787-022-01083-y. Epub 2022 Nov 5.


Background: Anxiety and depression are crucial public health issues, affecting the rising in hospitalizations and death. Anxiety and depression can worsen hypertension and vice versa.

Objective: The current study has investigated the effects of celery seed extract, as a drug supplement, with the active ingredient of 3-n-butylphthalide, on mental problems primarily anxiety and secondary depression in hypertensive patients.

Design: The current study was a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, 4-week clinical trial with a 4-week washout period. Fifty hypertensive patients received 4 placebo or celery seed extract capsules (1.34 g per day) for 4 weeks as a supplement to their usual medication regimen. The blood pressure parameters were assessed using 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device. Anxiety and depression and their wide range of symptoms were evaluated using Beck anxiety and depression inventories (BAI and BDI).

Results: In the celery treatment step, the mean reduction in BAI and BDI scores were 6.78 (P < 0.001) and 3.63 (P < 0.01), respectively. Some symptoms of anxiety including unable to relax, nervousness, numbness, dizziness, flushed face, sweating, and breathing difficulty were significantly improved by celery consumption (P < 0.001). Celery could decrease symptoms of depression such as sadness, crying, loss of energy, insomnia, irritability, fatigue, loss of interest in sex, and punishment feeling (P < 0.01). The mean reduction in blood pressure parameters was also significant during celery therapy (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The psychometric properties of anxiety and depression were investigated and the results were promising. The results indicated the anti-anxiety and anti-depressive properties of celery seed extract as a supplement in hypertensive patients.

Clinical trial registration: Registry name: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT), Registration number: IRCT20130418013058N8, Registration link: . The study was carried out between 2018-09-21 and 2020-07-20.

Keywords: Anxiety; Celery capsules; Cross-over clinical trial; Depression; Herbal medicine; Hypertensive patients.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Anxiety / drug therapy
  • Apium*
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory
  • Depression / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Hypertension*
  • Iran
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology


  • Plant Extracts