Predicting Infection Related Complications After Endovascular Repair of Infective Native Aortic Aneurysms

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2023 Mar;65(3):425-432. doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2022.11.003. Epub 2022 Nov 3.


Objective: Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) as surgical treatment for infective native aortic aneurysm (INAA) is associated with superior survival compared with open surgery, but with the risk of infection related complications (IRCs). This study aimed to assess the association between baseline clinical and computed tomography (CT) features and the risk of post-operative IRCs in patients treated with EVAR for INAA. It also sought to develop a model to predict long term IRCs in patients with abdominal INAA treated with EVAR.

Methods: All initial clinical details and CT examinations of INAAs between 2005 and 2020 at a major referral hospital were reviewed retrospectively. The images were scrutinised according to aneurysm features, as well as peri-aortic and surrounding organ involvement. Data on post-operative IRCs were found in the patient records. Cox regression analysis was used to derive predictors for IRCs and develop a model to predict five year IRCs after EVAR in abdominal INAA.

Results: Of 3 780 patients with the diagnosis of aortic aneurysm or aortitis, 98 (3%) patients were treated with EVAR for abdominal INAAs and were thus included. The mean follow up time was 52 months (range 0 ‒ 163). The mean transaxial diameter was 6.5 ± 2.4 cm (range 2.1 ‒14.7). In the enrolled patients, 38 (39%) presented with rupture. The five year IRC rate in abdominal INAAs was 26%. Female sex, renal insufficiency, positive blood culture, aneurysm diameter, and psoas muscle involvement were predictive of five year IRC in abdominal INAA after EVAR. The model had a C-index of 0.76 (95% CI 0.66 - 0.87).

Conclusion: Pre-operative clinical and CT features have the potential to predict IRC after endovascular aortic repair in INAA patients. These findings stress the importance of rigorous clinical, laboratory, and radiological follow up in these patients.

Keywords: Computed tomography; EVAR; Infected aortic aneurysm; Infection related complication; Infective native aortic aneurysm; Mycotic aortic aneurysm.

MeSH terms

  • Aneurysm, Infected* / surgery
  • Aorta / surgery
  • Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal* / surgery
  • Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation* / adverse effects
  • Endovascular Aneurysm Repair
  • Endovascular Procedures* / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome