Prognostic Significance of Nonobstructive Left Main Coronary Artery Disease in Patients With and Without Diabetes: Long-Term Outcomes From the CONFIRM Registry

Heart Lung Circ. 2022 Nov 3;S1443-9506(22)01126-X. doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2022.09.014. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background: Prognostic significance of non-obstructive left main (LM) disease was recently reported. However, the influence of diabetes mellitus (DM) on event rates in patients with and without non-obstructive LM disease is not well-known.

Methods: We evaluated 27,252 patients undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography from the COroNary CT Angiography Evaluation For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter (CONFIRM) Registry. Cumulative long-term incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) was assessed between DM and non-DM patients by normal or non-obstructive LM disease (1-49% stenosis).

Results: The mean age of the study population was 57.6 ± 12.6 years. Of the 27,252 patients, 4,434 (16%) patients had DM. A total of 899 (3%) deaths occurred during the follow-up of 3.6±1.9. years. Compared to patients with normal LM, those with non-obstructive LM had more pronounced overall coronary atherosclerosis and more cardiovascular risk factors. After clinical risk factors, segment involvement score, and stenosis severity adjustment, compared to patients without DM and normal LM, patients with DM were associated with increased ACM regardless of normal (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.22-1.78, p<0.001) or non-obstructive LM (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-2.04, p=0.029), while nonobstructive LM disease was not associated with increased ACM in patients without DM (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.67-1.07, p=0.165) and there was no significant interaction between DM and LM status (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.69-1.54, p=0.879).

Conclusion: From the CONFIRM registry, we demonstrated that DM was associated with increased ACM. However, the presence of non-obstructive LM was not an independent risk marker of ACM, and there was no significant interaction between DM and non-obstructive LM disease for ACM.

Keywords: All-cause mortality; Coronary computed tomographic angiography; Diabetes mellitus; Left main; Nonobstructive coronary artery disease.