Rationale: The association between organ laterality abnormalities and ciliary ultrastructural defect or genotype in primary ciliary dyskinesia is poorly understood. Objectives: To determine if there is an association between presence and/or type of laterality abnormality and ciliary ultrastructural defect or genotype. Methods: Participants with primary ciliary dyskinesia in a multicenter, prospective study were grouped based on ciliary ultrastructural defect or genotype. In a retrospective analysis of these data, the association of ciliary ultrastructural defect or genotype and likelihood of a laterality abnormality was evaluated by logistic regression adjusted for presence of two loss-of-function versus one or more not-loss-of-function variants. Results: Of 559 participants, 286 (51.2%), 215 (38.5%), and 58 (10.4%) were identified as having situs solitus, situs inversustotalis, and situs ambiguus, respectively; heterotaxy, defined as situs ambiguus with complex cardiovascular defects, was present in 14 (2.5%). Compared with the group with inner dynein arm defects with microtubular disorganization, laterality defects were more likely in the outer dynein arm defects group (odds ratio [OR], 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-3.54; P < 0.01) and less likely in the normal/near normal ultrastructure group (OR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.013-0.151; P < 0.01). Heterotaxy was present in 11 of 242 (4.5%) in the outer dynein arm defects group but 0 of 96 in the inner dynein arm defects with microtubular disorganization group (P = 0.038). Conclusion: In primary ciliary dyskinesia, risk of a laterality abnormality differs by ciliary ultrastructural defect. Pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying these differences require further exploration.
Keywords: laterality; situs ambiguous; situs inversus totalis.