Sex differences among patients presenting to hospital with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and shockable rhythm

Emerg Med Australas. 2022 Nov 7. doi: 10.1111/1742-6723.14117. Online ahead of print.


Objective: Sex differences in patients presenting with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and shockable rhythm might be associated with disparities in clinical outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study and compared characteristics and short-term outcomes between male and female adult patients who presented with OHCA and shockable rhythm at two large metropolitan health services in Melbourne, Australia between the period of 2014-2018. Logistic regression was used to assess the effect of sex on clinical outcomes.

Results: Of 212 patients, 166 (78%) were males and 46 (22%) were females. Both males and females presented with similar rates of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (44% vs 36%, P = 0.29), although males were more likely to have a history of coronary artery disease (32% vs 13%) and a final diagnosis of a cardiac cause for their OHCA (89% vs 72%), both P = 0.01. Rates of coronary angiography (81% vs 71%, P = 0.23) and percutaneous coronary intervention (51% vs 42%, P = 0.37) were comparable among males and females. No differences in rates of in-hospital mortality (38% vs 37%, P = 0.90) and 30-day major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization and nonfatal stroke) (39% vs 41%, P = 0.79) were observed between males and females, respectively. Female sex was not associated with worse in-hospital mortality when adjusted for other variables (odds ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.28-1.60, P = 0.36).

Conclusion: Among patients presenting with OHCA and a shockable rhythm, baseline sex and sex differences were not associated with disparities in short-term outcomes in contemporary systems of care.

Keywords: cardiac arrest; coronary angiography; post-resuscitation care.