Current developments in gastric cancer: from molecular profiling to treatment strategy

Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2023 Mar;20(3):155-170. doi: 10.1038/s41575-022-00703-w. Epub 2022 Nov 7.


Gastric cancer and gastro-oesophageal junction cancer represent a global health-care challenge. Despite the efficacy of improved chemotherapy and surgical options, these patients still have a poor prognosis. In advanced disease, only trastuzumab and some immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab in addition to chemotherapy, have demonstrated consistent and reliable efficacy in patients with HER2-positive and PDL1-positive tumours, respectively. In this Review, we discuss the intrinsic characteristics of gastric and gastro-oesophageal cancer from the molecular and clinical perspectives and provide a comprehensive review of previously reported and ongoing phase II and III clinical trials with targeted agents and immunotherapy in advanced and localized settings. Finally, we suggest alternative strategies to help overcome current challenges in precision medicine and to improve outcomes for these patients.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Esophageal Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Esophageal Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Nivolumab / therapeutic use
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Trastuzumab / therapeutic use


  • Trastuzumab
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Nivolumab