Background: The essential oil of pistacia vera (cv. Ohadi) hull (PHEO) was checked using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. It was studied the genes of the wnt pathway with a certain concentration of PHEO on Human gastric cancer (AGS), human hepatocellular carcinoma (PLC/PRF/5), and human colon cancer (CACO2) cell lines.
Methods and results: After evaluating the survival rate of cancer cells by MTT test and determining IC50, pistachio hull essential oil (PHEO) was used for 24-hours to treat the cells. After RNA extraction, the expression of wnt pathway genes was evaluated by Real-Time PCR. Considering the crucial role of β-catenin accumulation and its effect on the progression of gastrointestinal cancers, Western blot analysis was also used to determine the effect of PHEO in protein expression of β-catenin inhibition. Also, an in silico analysis was carried out to investigate the effect of PHEO extracted compounds on protein expression of β-catenin and FZD7 inhibition. According to the results, wnt pathway genes were changed in samples treated using PHEO. The results showed the up-regulation of GSK-3β and down-regulation of Wnt-1, LEF-1, TCF1, and CTNNB1 genes compared to the control.
Conclusion: We showed inhibition of β-catenin protein in cancer cell lines. Four compounds of PHEO were suggested to have an inhibition effect on β-catenin and FZD7. These compounds can be useful in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers. Altogether, the inhibitory role of β-catenin protein can be very effective and can be considered one of the therapeutic goals in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers.
Keywords: Anti-cancer therapeutic agents; Essential oil; Molecular docking analysis; Pistachio hull; Wnt pathway.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.