A Scoping Review of the Management of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in Africa

Cureus. 2022 Nov 5;14(11):e31135. doi: 10.7759/cureus.31135. eCollection 2022 Nov.


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-malignant prostate gland enlargement of unknown cause that affects more than 50% of men over 60 and is the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction and voiding symptoms. BPH is treated primarily with watchful waiting, phytotherapy (herbs), and medical or surgical options. In this study, we sought to examine the different management practices in African urological centers, outcomes of management, and complications. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, African Journal Online, and Google Scholar regarding the management of BPH from inception till date. Articles were selected based on their relevance to the management of benign prostatic enlargement in Africa. Results are reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) extension for scoping reviews. The studies included were conducted from 1997 to 2022. They were from eight different African countries (Nigeria, Kenya, Togo, Ethiopia, Egypt, South Africa, Ghana, and Congo), with Nigeria contributing the most with 10 studies. Exactly 2999 patients were included in the study. Seventy-three (73.49%) percent of these patients totaling 2204, underwent surgical management of BPH, 124 (4.13%) patients were treated with phytomedicines or herbs, and 684 (22.80%) patients were treated with medical therapy. The complications and outcomes were studied and collated. A total of 808 patients opted for non-surgical treatment for BPH in the included studies. In this group, 124 were treated using phytochemicals or natural herbs, and 648 were treated with standard prescription medications. While surgical treatment for benign prostatic enlargement is shifting towards minimally invasive procedures in the developed world, open prostatectomy is still quite popular in Africa. Further research should focus not only on the reason for these disparities in management but also on the rationale for the selection of medical, surgical, or phytotherapy in African urological centres.

Keywords: africa; benign prostate hyperplasia; bph management; holep; medical; open prostatectomy; prostate; surgical; turp; urology.

Publication types

  • Review