Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Related to Cardiotoxicity

J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2022 Nov 3;9(11):378. doi: 10.3390/jcdd9110378.


Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have now emerged as a mainstay of treatment for various cancers. Along with development of ICIs, immune-related adverse effects (irAEs) have aroused wide attention. The cardiac irAE, one of the rare but potentially fatal effects, have been reported recently. However, the clinical comprehension of cardiac irAEs remains limited and guidelines are inadequate for cardio-oncologists to tackle the problem. In this review, we have summarized current classifications of, manifestations of, potential mechanisms of, and treatment for ICI-related myocardial injury in order to provide some clues for the understanding of cardiac irAEs in clinical work.

Keywords: cardio-oncology; cardiotoxicity; immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune-related adverse effects; myocarditis.

Publication types

  • Review