The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates inputs from growth factors and nutrients, but how mTORC1 autoregulates its activity remains unclear. The MiT/TFE transcription factors are phosphorylated and inactivated by mTORC1 following lysosomal recruitment by RagC/D GTPases in response to amino acid stimulation. We find that starvation-induced lysosomal localization of the RagC/D GAP complex, FLCN:FNIP2, is markedly impaired in a mTORC1-sensitive manner in renal cells with TSC2 loss, resulting in unexpected TFEB hypophosphorylation and activation upon feeding. TFEB phosphorylation in TSC2-null renal cells is partially restored by destabilization of the lysosomal folliculin complex (LFC) induced by FLCN mutants and is fully rescued by forced lysosomal localization of the FLCN:FNIP2 dimer. Our data indicate that a negative feedback loop constrains amino acid-induced, FLCN:FNIP2-mediated RagC activity in renal cells with constitutive mTORC1 signaling, and the resulting MiT/TFE hyperactivation may drive oncogenesis with loss of the TSC2 tumor suppressor.
© 2022. The Author(s).