Heart failure is a complex health issue, with important consequences on the overall wellbeing of patients. It can occur both in acute and chronic forms and, in the latter, the immune system appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In particular, in the forms with preserved ejection fraction or with only mildly reduced ejection fraction, some specific associations with chronic inflammatory diseases have been observed. Another interesting aspect that is worth considering is the role of microbiota modulation, in this context: given the importance of microbiota in the modulation of immune responses, it is possible that changes in its composition may somewhat influence the progression and even the pathogenesis of heart failure. In this narrative review, we aim to examine the relationship between immunity and heart failure, with a special focus on the role of microbiota in this pathological condition.
Keywords: adaptive immunity; gut microbiota; heart failure; immune modulation; innate immunity.