CD8 Encephalitis: A Diagnostic Dilemma

Diagnostics (Basel). 2022 Nov 4;12(11):2687. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics12112687.


CD8+ encephalitis is a subacute encephalopathy associated with HIV infection. Pathophysiology is thought to be auto-reactive CD8+ cells attacking on HIV infected CD4+ cells and 'viral escape' phenomena (replication of CD8+ cells in CSF). We present a case of a 45-year-old man with well controlled HIV who developed CD8 encephalitis following Herpes simplex encephalitis. He had persistent encephalopathy for several weeks with status epilepticus and agitated delirium, and diagnosis remained elusive until a brain biopsy confirmed the diagnosis.

Keywords: CD8 encephalitis; HIV; HSV; encephalitis.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.