A Complex Genomic Rearrangement Resulting in Loss of Function of SCN1A and SCN2A in a Patient with Severe Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Oct 26;23(21):12900. doi: 10.3390/ijms232112900.


Complex genomic rearrangements (CGRs) are structural variants arising from two or more chromosomal breaks, which are challenging to characterize by conventional or molecular cytogenetic analysis (karyotype and FISH). The integrated approach of standard and genomic techniques, including optical genome mapping (OGM) and genome sequencing, is crucial for disclosing and characterizing cryptic chromosomal rearrangements at high resolutions. We report on a patient with a complex developmental and epileptic encephalopathy in which karyotype analysis showed a de novo balanced translocation involving the long arms of chromosomes 2 and 18. Microarray analysis detected a 194 Kb microdeletion at 2q24.3 involving the SCN2A gene, which was considered the likely translocation breakpoint on chromosome 2. However, OGM redefined the translocation breakpoints by disclosing a paracentric inversion at 2q24.3 disrupting SCN1A. This combined genomic high-resolution approach allowed a fine characterization of the CGR, which involves two different chromosomes with four breakpoints. The patient's phenotype resulted from the concomitant loss of function of SCN1A and SCN2A.

Keywords: CGR; DEE; OGM; SCN1A; SCN2A; array CGH; chromothripsis; complex genomic rearrangements; cryptic rearrangement; developmental and epileptic encephalopathy; genome sequencing; optical genome mapping.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Brain Diseases*
  • Chromosome Aberrations*
  • Chromosome Inversion
  • Genomics
  • Humans
  • Karyotype
  • Karyotyping
  • NAV1.1 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
  • NAV1.2 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel / genetics
  • Translocation, Genetic


  • SCN2A protein, human
  • NAV1.2 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
  • SCN1A protein, human
  • NAV1.1 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel