Deep Association between Transglutaminase 1 and Tissue Eosinophil Infiltration Leading to Nasal Polyp Formation and/or Maintenance with Fibrin Polymerization in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Oct 26;23(21):12955. doi: 10.3390/ijms232112955.


Transglutaminase (TGM) isoform catalyze the cross-linking reaction of identical or different substrate proteins. Eosinophil has been recognized in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) forming tissue eosinophil in nasal polyp (NP), and TGM isoforms are suggested to be associated with a critical role in asthma and other allergic conditions. The aim of this study was to reveal the association of specific TGM isoform with both the tissue eosinophil infiltration deeply concerning with the intractable severity of CRSwNP and the fibrin polymerization ability of TGM isoform associated with the tissue eosinophil infiltration, which lead to NP formation and/or maintenance in CRSwNP. NP tissues (CRSwNP group) and uncinate process (UP) (control group) were collected from patients with CRSwNP and control subjects. We examined: (1) the expression level of TGM isoforms by using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the comparison to the issue eosinophil count in the CRSwNP group, (2) the location of specific TGM isoform in the mucosal tissue using immunohistochemistry, (3) the inflammatory cell showing the colocalization of specific TGM isoform in Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) imaging, and (4) the fibrin polymerase activity of specific TGM isoform using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A certain level of TGM 1, 2, 3, 5 expression was present in both the CRSwNP group and the control group. Only TGM 1 expression showed a positive significant correlation with the tissue eosinophil count in the CRSwNP group. The localization of TGM 1 in NP (CRSwNP) laid mainly in a submucosal layer as inflammatory cells and was at the cytoplasm in the tissue eosinophil. Fibrin polymerase activity of TGM 1 showed the same polymerase ability of factor XIIIA. TGM 1 might influence the NP formation and/or maintenance in CRSwNP related to the tissue eosinophil infiltration, which formed fibrin mesh composing NP stroma.

Keywords: catalyzation; chronic rhinosinusitis; eosinophil; fibrin polymerization; nasal polyp; transglutaminase 1.

MeSH terms

  • Chronic Disease
  • Eosinophils / metabolism
  • Fibrin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Nasal Polyps* / pathology
  • Polymerization
  • Rhinitis* / pathology
  • Sinusitis* / metabolism
  • Transglutaminases / genetics
  • Transglutaminases / metabolism


  • transglutaminase 1
  • Fibrin
  • Transglutaminases