Advances in Intraoperative Flow Cytometry

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Nov 3;23(21):13430. doi: 10.3390/ijms232113430.


Flow cytometry is the gold-standard laser-based technique to measure and analyze fluorescence levels of immunostaining and DNA content in individual cells. It provides a valuable tool to assess cells in the G0/G1, S, and G2/M phases, and those with polyploidy, which holds prognostic significance. Frozen section analysis is the standard intraoperative assessment for tumor margin evaluation and tumor resection. Here, we present flow cytometry as a promising technique for intraoperative tumor analysis in different pathologies, including brain tumors, leptomeningeal dissemination, breast cancer, head and neck cancer, pancreatic tumor, and hepatic cancer. Flow cytometry is a valuable tool that can provide substantial information on tumor analysis and, consequently, maximize cancer treatment and expedite patients' survival.

Keywords: brain tumors; breast cancer; cell cycle; flow cytometry; intraoperative; tumor markers.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Brain Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Breast Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cell Division
  • Female
  • Flow Cytometry / methods
  • G2 Phase
  • Humans

Grants and funding

This research received no external funding.