Local Recurrence Risk Score to Predict Relapse after Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Tumors

J Clin Med. 2022 Oct 31;11(21):6445. doi: 10.3390/jcm11216445.

Abstract

Background: After stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung tumors, follow-up CT scans remain a pitfall. The early detection of local relapse is essential to propose a new treatment. We aim to create a local recurrence predictive score using pre- and post-therapeutic imaging criteria and test it on a validation cohort.

Methods: Between February 2011 and July 2016, lung tumors treated by SBRT with available pretreatment fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and follow-up CT scans were retrospectively analyzed. The risk factors associated with relapse were identified by univariate logistic regression on a train cohort. The score was created using these factors, merging clinical and imaging criteria associated with local relapse, and then tested on an independent validation cohort. Overall and local relapse-free survival at 1 and 3 years were recorded.

Results: Twenty-eight patients were included in the train cohort and ten in the derivation cohort (male 74%, median age 70 ± 12 years). Five variables significantly associated with local recurrence (female gender; sequential enlargement; craniocaudal growing; bulging margins; standardized uptake value (SUVmax > 5.5)) were combined to create the score on five points. With the threshold >2.5/5, the sensitivity and specificity of the score on the validation cohort were 100% and 88%, respectively. Overall survival and local relapse-free survival at 1 and 3 years were 89% and 42%, and 89% and 63%, respectively.

Conclusion: The local recurrence risk score created has high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (88%), upon independent validation cohort, to detect local relapse. This score is easy to use in daily clinical practice.

Keywords: CT scanner; X-ray; follow up studies; non-small-cell lung carcinomas; stereotactic radiations.

Grant support

This research received no external funding.