EMHD Nanofluid Flow with Radiation and Variable Heat Flux Effects along a Slandering Stretching Sheet

Nanomaterials (Basel). 2022 Nov 2;12(21):3872. doi: 10.3390/nano12213872.


Nanofluids have gained prominence due to their superior thermo-physical properties. The current paper deals with MHD nanofluid flow over a non-linear stretchable surface of varying thickness in the presence of an electric field. We investigated the effects of nanometer-sized copper (Cu) particles in water (base fluid) as a nanofluid, as well as non-linear thermal radiation, variable fluid viscosity, Joule heating, viscous dissipation, and non-uniform heat flux. The current study's aim is influenced by the immense applications in industry and machine building. It has been observed that linear stretching sheets have been extensively used in heat transfer research. Moreover, no effort has been made yet to model a non-linear stretching sheet with variable thickness. Furthermore, the effects of electromagnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) boundary-layer flow of a nanofluid with the cumulative impact of thermal radiation, variable viscosity, viscous dissipation, Joule heating, and variable heat flux have been investigated. Sheets with variable thicknesses are practically significant in real-life applications and are being used in metallurgical engineering, appliance structures and patterns, atomic reactor mechanization and paper production. To investigate the physical features of the problem, we first examined the model and identified all the physical properties of the problem. This problem has been formulated using basic laws and governing equations. The partial differential equations (PDEs) that govern the flow are converted into a system of non-dimensional ordinary differential equations (ODE's), using appropriate transformations. The Adam-Bashforth predictor-corrector technique and Mathematica software are utilized to numerically solve the resulting non-dimensionalized system. The interaction of various developing parameters with the flow is described graphically for temperature and velocity profiles. It is concluded that the velocity of nanoparticles declines as the intensity of the magnetic field increases. However, the temperature of the nanomaterials rises, as increasing the values of the electric field also increases the velocity distribution. The radiation parameter enhances the temperature field. The temperature of the fluid increases the occurrence of space- and time-dependent parameters for heat generation and absorption and radiation parameters.

Keywords: EMHD; nanofluid; non-uniform heat flux; thermal radiation; variable thickness; viscous dissipation.

Grant support

The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University for funding this work through the research group program under Grant No. RGP.2/172/43.