Postprandial Glycemic Response to Whole Fruit versus Blended Fruit in Healthy, Young Adults

Nutrients. 2022 Oct 30;14(21):4565. doi: 10.3390/nu14214565.


While increased intake of dietary fiber is known to reduce postprandial glycemic response, it is less understood whether the disruption of dietary fiber, in a blender, alters the postprandial glycemic response. We compared the postprandial glycemic response in 20 young, healthy college students (12 female, 8 male) after consuming whole fruit vs. blended fruit. The fruit included gala apple, with the seeds removed, and blackberries. We used a repeated measures two-way ANOVA with fruit treatment as the within-subject variable, sex as the between-subjects factor, and glucose maximum, glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC), and 60 min glucose as dependent variables. Glucose maximum and glucose iAUC were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in blended fruit compared to whole fruit and 60 min glucose was marginally significantly lower (p = 0.057) in blended fruit compared to whole fruit. Sex was not a significant main effect and sex*treatment was not a significant interaction for any of the dependent variables. We hypothesize that a reduced glycemic response in blended apple and blackberries compared to whole apple and blackberries might be associated with the release of dietary fiber and nutritive components from ground blackberry seeds.

Keywords: blended; fruit; glucose; glycemic response; postprandial; processed; smoothie; whole.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Female
  • Fruit
  • Glucose
  • Glycemic Index / physiology
  • Humans
  • Insulin
  • Male
  • Malus*
  • Postprandial Period
  • Rubus*
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Glucose
  • Insulin

Grant support

This research received no external funding.