Deformable Nanovesicle-Loaded Gel for Buccal Insulin Delivery

Pharmaceutics. 2022 Oct 22;14(11):2262. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics14112262.


Deformable nanovesicles (DNVs) have been widely used in oral mucosal delivery studies of biomolecular drugs. However, their development for oral mucosal preparations has been limited by their physical and chemical instability, the need for small oral volumes, and the complexity of the oral microenvironment. This study aimed to develop a more suitable buccal delivery system for DNVs with improved storage stability. Preliminary stability studies investigated different gel types, the effects of different hydrophilic gel matrices, and matrix temperature sensitivity using DNVs loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex (IPC-DNVs). A temperature-sensitive gel encapsulating IPC-DNVs (IPC-DNV-TSG) prepared with 2% w/v gelatin was stable at 4 °C for three months and maintained an excellent hypoglycemic effect. The delivery efficiency of IPC-DNVs and IPC-DNV-TSG was compared using a TR146 cell model, revealing that cell viability remained high. Cellular uptake was slightly lower for IPC-DNV-TSG than for IPC-DNVs, but total transport did not differ significantly between the two groups, which may have been related to the viscosity of IPC-DNV-TSG and the hydrophilicity, cell adhesion properties, and biocompatibility of gelatin. Moreover, neither IPC-DNVs nor IPC-DNV-TSG induced significant mucosal irritation in rabbit tongue tissue sections. The study findings demonstrate a promising method for possible use as oral mucosal delivery of peptide drugs.

Keywords: buccal delivery; deformable nanovesicles; gels; hypoglycemic effect; insulin; safety.