Optimal CCN4 Immunofluorescence for Tissue Microarray

Methods Mol Biol. 2023:2582:13-21. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-2744-0_2.


CCN4 (also known as WNT1-Inducible Signaling Pathway Protein 1 or WISP1) is a 367 amino acid, 40 kDa protein located on chromosome 8q24.1-8q24.3. Prior studies have provided support for a pro-inflammatory role for CCN4. We have shown recently that CCN4 expression is associated with advanced disease, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and an inflamed tumor microenvironment in multiple solid tumors. We detail here the CCN4 tissue microarray immunofluorescence protocol related to these findings.

Keywords: CCN proteins; CCN4; IF; Immunofluorescence; TMA; Tissue microarray; WISP1.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins* / genetics
  • CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins* / metabolism
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms*
  • Tumor Microenvironment


  • CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins