Burden of established cardiovascular disease in people with type 2 diabetes and matched controls: Hospital-based care, days absent from work, costs and mortality

Diabetes Obes Metab. 2023 Mar;25(3):726-734. doi: 10.1111/dom.14919. Epub 2022 Nov 28.


Aims: To assess hospital-based care, work absence, associated costs, and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without established cardiovascular disease (eCVD) compared to matched controls.

Materials and methods: In a population-based cohort study, we analysed individual-level data from national health, social insurance and socio-economic registers for people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes before age 70 years and controls (5:1) in Sweden. Regression analysis was used to attribute costs and days absent due to eCVD. Mortality was analysed using Cox proportional hazard regression, stratified by birth year and adjusted for sex and education.

Results: Thirty percent (n = 136 135 of 454 983) of people with type 2 diabetes had ≥1 person-year with eCVD (women 24%; men 34%). The mean annual costs of hospital-based care for diabetes complications were EUR 2629 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2601-2657) of which EUR 2337 (95% CI 2309-2365) were attributed to eCVD (89%). The most costly person-years (10th percentile) were observed in a broad subgroup, 42% of people with type 2 diabetes and eCVD. People with type 2 diabetes had on average 146 days absent (95% CI 145-147) per year, of which 68 days (47%; 95% CI 67-70) were attributed to eCVD. The mortality hazard ratio for type 2 diabetes with eCVD was 4.63 (95%CI 4.58-4.68) and without eCVD was 1.86 (95% CI 1.84-1.88) compared to controls without eCVD.

Conclusion: The sizable burden of eCVD on both the individual with type 2 diabetes and society calls for efficient management in order to reduce the risks for those living with eCVD and to postpone its onset.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / complications
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Day Care, Medical
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Hospitals
  • Humans
  • Male