Model-based predictions on health benefits and budget impact of implementing empagliflozin in people with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease

Diabetes Obes Metab. 2023 Mar;25(3):748-757. doi: 10.1111/dom.14921. Epub 2022 Dec 2.


Aim: To perform a model-based analysis of the short- and long-term health benefits and costs of further increased implementation of empagliflozin for people with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease (eCVD) in Sweden.

Materials and methods: The validated Institute for Health Economics Diabetes Cohort Model (IHE-DCM) was used to estimate health benefits and a 3-year budget impact, and lifetime costs per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained of increased implementation of adding empagliflozin to standard of care (SoC) for people with type 2 diabetes and eCVD in a Swedish setting. Scenarios with 100%/75%/50% implementation were explored. Analyses were based on 30 model cohorts with type 2 diabetes and eCVD (n = 131 412 at baseline) from national health data registers. Sensitivity analyses explored the robustness of results.

Results: Over 3 years, SoC with empagliflozin (100% implementation) versus SoC before empagliflozin resulted in 7700 total life years gained and reductions in cumulative incidence of cardiovascular deaths by 30% and heart failures by 28%. Annual costs increased by 15% from higher treatment costs and increased survival. Half of these benefits and costs are not yet reached with current implementation below 50%. SoC with empagliflozin yielded 0.37 QALYs per person, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 16 000 EUR per QALY versus SoC before empagliflozin.

Conclusions: Model simulations using real-world data and trial treatment effects indicated that a broader implementation of empagliflozin, in line with current guidelines for treatment of people with type 2 diabetes and eCVD, would lead to further benefits even from a short-term perspective.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Benzhydryl Compounds / therapeutic use
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / complications
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / drug therapy
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / epidemiology
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / epidemiology
  • Health Care Costs
  • Humans
  • Quality-Adjusted Life Years


  • empagliflozin
  • Benzhydryl Compounds