Evaluating the effects of zeolitic imidazolate framework and Eremostachys binalodensis extract on Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans biofilms

Eur J Oral Sci. 2022 Dec;130(6):e12904. doi: 10.1111/eos.12904. Epub 2022 Nov 13.


Biofilms represent longstanding challenges to oral health care. Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans are the common pathogens forming biofilms. The growing resistance to and the adverse effects of antibiotics limit their usage and raise the need for novel approaches. Herbal extracts have emerged as efficient choices with lower costs and fewer adverse effects. Metal frameworks have captivated interest due to their high surface area, special biocompatibility, and non-toxicity. The effects of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks/layered double hydroxide (ZIF/LDH) on fungal infections and the potential effects of Eremostachys binalodensis on bacteria encouraged the researchers to evaluate the effect of ZIF/LDH, E. binalodensis, and their combination on C. albicans and S. mutans biofilms. ZIF/LDH nanocomposite was synthesized and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra, and X-ray diffraction to assess morphology and chemical structure. Methanol extracts of the areal parts of E. binalodensis were obtained by Soxhlet extraction. The microdilution tests and biofilm crystal violet staining were applied. Concentrations of 2.048 and 4.096 mg/ml E. binalodensis prevented C. albicans and S. mutans biofilm formation. The combination of ZIF/LDH + E. binalodensis prevented C. albicans and S. mutans biofilm formation. This research suggests the use of E. binalodensis-loaded ZIF/LDH nanocomposites for removing biofilms.

Keywords: herbal medicine; infection; metal-organic-frameworks; oral health; resistant.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biofilms
  • Candida albicans
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Streptococcus mutans*
  • Zeolites* / pharmacology


  • Zeolites
  • Plant Extracts