Noninvasive and Invasive Renal Hypoxia Monitoring in a Porcine Model of Hemorrhagic Shock

J Vis Exp. 2022 Oct 28:(188):10.3791/64461. doi: 10.3791/64461.


Up to 50% of patients with trauma develop acute kidney injury (AKI), in part due to poor renal perfusion after severe blood loss. AKI is currently diagnosed based on a change in serum creatinine concentration from baseline or prolonged periods of decreased urine output. Unfortunately, baseline serum creatinine concentration data is unavailable in most patients with trauma, and current estimation methods are inaccurate. In addition, serum creatinine concentration may not change until 24-48 h after the injury. Lastly, oliguria must persist for a minimum of 6 h to diagnose AKI, making it impractical for early diagnosis. AKI diagnostic approaches available today are not useful for predicting risk during the resuscitation of patients with trauma. Studies suggest that urinary partial pressure of oxygen (PuO2) may be useful for assessing renal hypoxia. A monitor that connects the urinary catheter and the urine collection bag was developed to measure PuO2 noninvasively. The device incorporates an optical oxygen sensor that estimates PuO2 based on luminescence quenching principles. In addition, the device measures urinary flow and temperature, the latter to adjust for confounding effects of temperature changes. Urinary flow is measured to compensate for the effects of oxygen ingress during periods of low urine flow. This article describes a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock to study the relationship between noninvasive PuO2, renal hypoxia, and AKI development. A key element of the model is the ultrasound-guided surgical placement in the renal medulla of an oxygen probe, which is based on an unsheathed optical microfiber. PuO2 will also be measured in the bladder and compared to the kidney and noninvasive PuO2 measurements. This model can be used to test PuO2 as an early marker of AKI and assess PuO2 as a resuscitative endpoint after hemorrhage that is indicative of end-organ rather than systemic oxygenation.

Publication types

  • Video-Audio Media
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury* / diagnosis
  • Acute Kidney Injury* / etiology
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers
  • Creatinine
  • Hypoxia
  • Oxygen
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic* / diagnosis
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic* / etiology
  • Swine


  • Creatinine
  • Oxygen
  • Biomarkers