Safety of mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines in Patients with Inborn Errors of Immunity: an Italian Multicentric Study

J Clin Immunol. 2022 Nov 14;1-9. doi: 10.1007/s10875-022-01402-6. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Purpose: Little is known about vaccine safety in inborn errors of immunity (IEI) patients during the current vaccination campaign for COVID-19. To better investigate the reactogenicity and adverse event profile after two, three, and four doses of mRNA vaccines, we conducted an observational, multicentric study on 342 PID patients from four Italian Referral Centres.

Methods: We conducted a survey on self-reported adverse reactions in IEI patients who received mRNA vaccine by administering a questionnaire after each dose.

Results: Over the whole study period, none of the patients needed hospitalization or had hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis and delayed injection site reaction. After two vaccination doses, 35.4% of patients showed only local reactogenicity-related symptoms (RrS), 44.4% reported both systemic and local RrS, and 5% reported only systemic RrS. In more than 60% of cases, local or systemic RrS were mild. After the first and second booster doses, patients showed fewer adverse events (AEs) than after the first vaccination course. Patients aged 50 years and older reported adverse events and RrS less frequently. Among AEs requiring treatment, one common variable immune deficiency patient affected by T cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia developed neutropenia and one patient had Bell's paralysis perhaps during herpes zoster reactivation.

Conclusion: Although our follow-up period is relatively short, the safety data we reported are reassuring. This data would help to contrast the vaccine hesitancy often manifested by patients with IEI and to better inform their healthcare providers.

Keywords: COVID-19; CVID; IEI patients; Vaccines; adverse reaction; immunodeficiency; safety profile.