This narrative report summarizes diagnostic criteria for hypoparathyroidism and describes the clinical presentation and underlying genetic causes of the nonsurgical forms. We conducted a comprehensive literature search from January 2000 to January 2021 and included landmark articles before 2000, presenting a comprehensive update of these topics and suggesting a research agenda to improve diagnosis and, eventually, the prognosis of the disease. Hypoparathyroidism, which is characterized by insufficient secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) leading to hypocalcemia, is diagnosed on biochemical grounds. Low albumin-adjusted calcium or ionized calcium with concurrent inappropriately low serum PTH concentration are the hallmarks of the disease. In this review, we discuss the characteristics and pitfalls in measuring calcium and PTH. We also undertook a systematic review addressing the utility of measuring calcium and PTH within 24 hours after total thyroidectomy to predict long-term hypoparathyroidism. A summary of the findings is presented here; results of the detailed systematic review are published separately in this issue of JBMR. Several genetic disorders can present with hypoparathyroidism, either as an isolated disease or as part of a syndrome. A positive family history and, in the case of complex diseases, characteristic comorbidities raise the clinical suspicion of a genetic disorder. In addition to these disorders' phenotypic characteristics, which include autoimmune diseases, we discuss approaches for the genetic diagnosis. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
Keywords: AUTOIMMUNE; CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; FAMILIAL HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; GENETIC TESTS; HYPOPARATHYROIDISM.
© 2022 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).