Association between gestational diabetes and 6-year incident diabetes: results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2022 Nov;10(6):e002980. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2022-002980.


Objective: Type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes (GDM) disproportionately affect those of Hispanic/Latino heritage. This study examined the association between GDM and prevalent and incident diabetes in a community-based study of Hispanic/Latina women living in the USA.

Methods: Participants were women aged 18-74 years in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos who had at least one pregnancy and had information on self-reported history of GDM at baseline (n=6389). Logistic regression was used to determine the association between GDM and prevalent (2008-2011) and incident (2014-2017) diabetes and interactions between GDM and risk factors for incident diabetes.

Results: At baseline, 8.7% of participants reported a history of GDM and 18.6% had prevalent diabetes. Women with Mexican heritage had the highest prevalence of GDM history (11.3%) vs women of Cuban (5.0%), Central American (4.9%), and South American (3.8%) heritage (p<0.001 for each comparison to Mexican heritage). Women with self-reported GDM were four times more likely to have prevalent diabetes compared with women without GDM, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and cardiometabolic risk factors (adjusted OR (aOR)=3.94, 95% CI 2.75 to 5.64). Overall incidence of diabetes was 14.3/100 women. Women with GDM at baseline increased their odds of incident diabetes by threefold compared with women without GDM (aOR=3.25, 95% CI 2.09 to 5.05). Women with Cuban or Puerto Rican heritage and GDM had significantly higher odds of incident diabetes compared with women with Mexican heritage (aOR=2.15, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.95; aOR=1.95, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.55, respectively).

Conclusion: Self-reported GDM was significantly associated with a threefold higher risk of incident diabetes among Hispanic/Latino women in the USA even after adjusting for several significant predictors of diabetes.

Keywords: Hispanic Americans; diabetes, gestational; epidemiology; incidence.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / epidemiology
  • Diabetes, Gestational* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pregnancy
  • Public Health
  • Risk Factors