Objective: Type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes (GDM) disproportionately affect those of Hispanic/Latino heritage. This study examined the association between GDM and prevalent and incident diabetes in a community-based study of Hispanic/Latina women living in the USA.
Methods: Participants were women aged 18-74 years in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos who had at least one pregnancy and had information on self-reported history of GDM at baseline (n=6389). Logistic regression was used to determine the association between GDM and prevalent (2008-2011) and incident (2014-2017) diabetes and interactions between GDM and risk factors for incident diabetes.
Results: At baseline, 8.7% of participants reported a history of GDM and 18.6% had prevalent diabetes. Women with Mexican heritage had the highest prevalence of GDM history (11.3%) vs women of Cuban (5.0%), Central American (4.9%), and South American (3.8%) heritage (p<0.001 for each comparison to Mexican heritage). Women with self-reported GDM were four times more likely to have prevalent diabetes compared with women without GDM, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and cardiometabolic risk factors (adjusted OR (aOR)=3.94, 95% CI 2.75 to 5.64). Overall incidence of diabetes was 14.3/100 women. Women with GDM at baseline increased their odds of incident diabetes by threefold compared with women without GDM (aOR=3.25, 95% CI 2.09 to 5.05). Women with Cuban or Puerto Rican heritage and GDM had significantly higher odds of incident diabetes compared with women with Mexican heritage (aOR=2.15, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.95; aOR=1.95, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.55, respectively).
Conclusion: Self-reported GDM was significantly associated with a threefold higher risk of incident diabetes among Hispanic/Latino women in the USA even after adjusting for several significant predictors of diabetes.
Keywords: Hispanic Americans; diabetes, gestational; epidemiology; incidence.
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