SCAI stage reclassification at 24 h predicts outcome of cardiogenic shock: Insights from the Altshock-2 registry

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2023 Jan;101(1):22-32. doi: 10.1002/ccd.30484. Epub 2022 Nov 15.


Background: Cardiogenic shock (CS) includes several phenotypes with heterogenous hemodynamic features. Timely prognostication is warranted to identify patients requiring treatment escalation. We explored the association of the updated Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) stages classification with in-hospital mortality using a prospective national registry.

Methods: Between March 2020 and February 2022 the Altshock-2 Registry has included 237 patients with CS of all etiologies at 11 Italian Centers. Patients were classified according to their admission SCAI stage (assigned prospectively and independently updated according to the recently released version). In-hospital mortality was evaluated for association with both admission and 24-h SCAI stages.

Results: The overall in-hospital mortality was 38%. Of the 237 patients included and staged according to the updated SCAI classification, 20 (8%) had SCAI shock stage B, 131 (55%) SCAI stage C, 61 (26%) SCAI stage D and 25 (11%) SCAI stage E. In-hospital mortality stratified according to the SCAI classification at 24 h was 18% for patients in SCAI stage B, 27% for SCAI stage C, 63% for SCAI stage D and 100% for SCAI stage E. Both the revised SCAI stages on admission and at 24 h were associated with in-hospital mortality, but the classification potential slightly increased at 24-h. After adjusting for age, sex, lactate level, eGFR, CVP, inotropic score and mechanical circulatory support [MCS], SCAI classification at 24 h was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality.

Conclusions: In the Altshock-2 registry the utility of SCAI shock stages to identify risk of in-hospital mortality increased at 24 h after admission. Escalation of treatment (either pharmacological or with MCS) should be tailored to achieve prompt clinical improvement within the first 24 h after admission. Registration: http://www.

Clinicaltrials: gov; Unique identifier: NCT04295252.

Keywords: SCAI stages; cardiogenic shock; heart failure.

MeSH terms

  • Angiography* / adverse effects
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Prospective Studies
  • Registries
  • Shock, Cardiogenic* / diagnosis
  • Shock, Cardiogenic* / etiology
  • Shock, Cardiogenic* / therapy
  • Treatment Outcome

Associated data