Cell-Based Therapy Approaches in Treatment of Non-obstructive Azoospermia

Reprod Sci. 2023 May;30(5):1482-1494. doi: 10.1007/s43032-022-01115-6. Epub 2022 Nov 15.


The rate of infertility has globally increased in recent years for a variety of reasons. One of the main causes of infertility in men is azoospermia that is defined by the absence of sperm in the ejaculate and classified into two categories: obstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia. In non-obstructive azoospermia, genital ducts are not obstructed, but the testicles do not produce sperm at all, due to various reasons. Non-obstructive azoospermia in most cases has no therapeutic options other than assisted reproductive techniques, which in most cases require sperm donors. Here we discuss cell-based therapy approaches to restore fertility in men with non-obstructive azoospermia including cell-based therapies of non-obstructive azoospermia using regenerative medicine and cell-based therapies of non-obstructive azoospermia by paracrine and anti-inflammatory pathway, technical and ethical challenges for using different cell sources and alternative options will be described, and then the more effectual approaches will be mentioned as future trends.

Keywords: Cell therapy; Inflammation; Non-obstructive azoospermia; Paracrine effect; Regenerative medicine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Azoospermia* / etiology
  • Azoospermia* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Reproductive Techniques, Assisted / adverse effects
  • Semen
  • Sperm Retrieval
  • Testis