Emerging hemostatic materials for non-compressible hemorrhage control

Natl Sci Rev. 2022 Aug 17;9(11):nwac162. doi: 10.1093/nsr/nwac162. eCollection 2022 Nov.


Non-compressible hemorrhage control is a big challenge in both civilian life and the battlefield, causing a majority of deaths among all traumatic injury mortalities. Unexpected non-compressible bleeding not only happens in pre-hospital situations but also leads to a high risk of death during surgical processes throughout in-hospital treatment. Hemostatic materials for pre-hospital treatment or surgical procedures for non-compressible hemorrhage control have drawn more and more attention in recent years and several commercialized products have been developed. However, these products have all shown non-negligible limitations and researchers are focusing on developing more effective hemostatic materials for non-compressible hemorrhage control. Different hemostatic strategies (physical, chemical and biological) have been proposed and different forms (sponges/foams, sealants/adhesives, microparticles/powders and platelet mimics) of hemostatic materials have been developed based on these strategies. A summary of the requirements, state-of-the-art studies and commercial products of non-compressible hemorrhage-control materials is provided in this review with particular attention on the advantages and limitations of their emerging forms, to give a clear understanding of the progress that has been made in this area and the promising directions for future generations.

Keywords: commercialized hemorrhage-control strategies; hemostatic sponge; hydrogel; microparticle; non-compressible hemorrhage control; platelet mimics.

Publication types

  • Review