Urinary tract infection caused by bacterial pathogens of the respiratory tract in children

Pediatr Int. 2022 Jan;64(1):e15419. doi: 10.1111/ped.15419.


Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by bacterial pathogens of the respiratory tract such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are rare and little is known about their clinical features and potential host risk factors. The aim of this study is to reveal their clinical characteristics.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study on pediatric UTI due to S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus spp., or M. catarrhalis at a tertiary-care pediatric hospital. Pediatric patients diagnosed with UTI between 2002 and 2020 were included. Patient demographics, laboratory data, and microbiological findings were extracted from their electronic medical records and the infectious disease surveillance system.

Results: Among 46,332 urine samples, 76 bacteriuria (0.16%) and 22 UTI (0.05%) events due to the targeted species were identified (S. pneumoniae, n = 7, and Haemophilus spp., n = 15). Of the patients, 17 (85%) had underlying urinary tract abnormalities and 13 (60%) had vesicocutaneous fistula. All the UTI episodes caused by S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus spp. occurred after cystostomy. All the patients had satisfactory clinical outcomes.

Conclusions: Although S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus spp. are rare causes of UTIs in children, they could be the true causative bacteria of UTI, particularly in the patients with urinary tract abnormalities and vesicocutaneous fistulas. Thus, clinicians should not ignore these pathogens as contaminations in special populations.

Keywords: Haemophilus influenzae; Streptococcus pneumoniae; child; urinary tract infection; vesicocutaneous fistula.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Child
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Humans
  • Moraxella catarrhalis
  • Respiratory System
  • Respiratory Tract Infections* / epidemiology
  • Respiratory Tract Infections* / microbiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Urinary Tract Infections* / epidemiology
  • Urinary Tract Infections* / microbiology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents