CT features of malignant tubular genital tract tumors in seven goats

Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2022 Nov 16. doi: 10.1111/vru.13186. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Neoplasia of the tubular genital tract in goats, while rarely described, is most commonly reported as uterine adenocarcinoma, leiomyoma, or leiomyosarcoma. In this retrospective, single-center, case series, medical records were searched for goats with a computed tomography (CT) diagnosis of tubular genital mass and a definitive histologic (surgical biopsy or necropsy) diagnosis of malignant neoplasia. Data recorded from CT images were presence of peritoneal/retroperitoneal fluid, urinary tract obstruction, abdominal lymphadenomegaly, additional abdominal nodules/masses, and pulmonary nodules. For masses, maximum cross-sectional area, contrast enhancement, and uterine luminal fluid accumulation were also recorded. Seven goats met the inclusion criteria (leiomyosarcoma n = 5, adenocarcinoma n = 2). Both goats with adenocarcinoma had upper urinary tract obstruction, moderate to severe regional lymphadenopathy, peritoneal fluid, and peritoneal or hepatic nodules/masses; one goat with adenocarcinoma was discharged and subsequently euthanized, and the other had palliative mass debulking and was lost to follow up. Goats with leiomyosarcoma had infrequent, mild peritoneal fluid and mild sublumbar lymphadenopathy. Of the goats with leiomyosarcoma, two were euthanized at or near the time of CT imaging, two were euthanized at the time of surgery due to perceived mass non-resectability, and one had mass regression approximately four months post ovariohysterectomy but was subsequently lost to follow up. Five goats had pulmonary nodules, three of which had pathologic confirmation (pulmonary metastasis in a single patient with adenocarcinoma, and lungworm granulomas in two goats with leiomyosarcoma). Severe sublumbar lymphadenopathy and obstructive uropathy were sequelae in the two caprine patients with genital adenocarcinoma, and in none with leiomyosarcoma.

Keywords: MDCT; adenocarcinoma; caprine; colic; hydronephrosis; leiomyosarcoma; uterus.