Entomo-virological surveillance followed by serological active survey of symptomatic individuals is helpful to identify hotspots of early arbovirus transmission

Front Public Health. 2022 Oct 28;10:1024187. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.1024187. eCollection 2022.

Abstract

Arboviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti in urban environments have spread rapidly worldwide, causing great impacts on public health. The development of reliable and timely alert signals is among the most important steps in designing accurate surveillance systems for vector-borne diseases. In July and September 2017, we conducted a pilot study to improve an existing integrated surveillance system by using entomo-virological surveillance to prioritize areas to conduct active searches for individuals with arbovirus infection symptoms. Foz do Iguaçu City has a permanent entomo-virological surveillance system with approximately 3,500 traps to capture Aedes sp. in the adult stage. The Aedes aegypti females are captured alive and human samples are submitted to RT-qPCR (real-time qPCR) screening for DENV, ZIKV, and CHIKV diagnosis. Of the 55 Ae. aegypti mosquitoes tested in July 2017, seven (12.7%) were considered positive for DENV-2 and three (5.4%) for CHIKV. In September, we tested a sample of 54 mosquitoes, and 15 (27.7%) were considered infected by DENV-2. We created 25 circumferences with 150-m radius each to perform an active survey to identify symptomatic householders. In July, we selected one circumference, and five (35.7%) patients were positive for DENV, whereas two (14.3%) for CHIKV. In September, we selected four circumferences, and, from the 21 individuals sampled, nine (42.8%) were positive for DENV-2. A statistical model with a binomial response was used to estimate the number of cases in areas without active surveys, i.e., 20 circumferences. We estimated an additional 83 symptomatic patients (95% CI: 45-145) to be found in active searches, with 38 (95% CI: 18-72) of them confirming arbovirus infection. Arbovirus detection and serotyping in mosquitoes, but also in symptomatic individuals during active surveys, can provide an alert signal of early arbovirus transmission.

Keywords: Aedes aegpyti; chikungunya; dengue; early-warning system; entomo-virological surveillance; transmission risk; vector control; vector-borne diseases.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aedes*
  • Animals
  • Arboviruses*
  • Dengue Virus* / genetics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Mosquito Vectors
  • Pilot Projects
  • Sentinel Surveillance
  • Zika Virus Infection* / epidemiology
  • Zika Virus* / genetics