The HLA-A,-B,-C,-DR antigens and the complement factors C2, C4 and Bf were determined in 30 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients and 30 healthy controls from northern Sweden. Family studies allowed the deduction of extended haplotypes in the HLA and complement systems. Phenotype studies revealed significant associations between IDDM and HLA-DR4 (p less than 0.001), HLA-DR3 (p less than 0.05), HLA-DR3/4 (p less than 0.025), C4-B3 (p less than 0.001) and Bf-S (p less than 0.025). Haplotype studies showed that the extended haplotype [HLA-B15, C2-1, C4-A3B3, Bf-S, HLA-DR4] had a particularly strong association to IDDM. This haplotype was found in 10 out of 30 IDDM probands but in none of 30 control children and accounts for practically all the C4-B3 allotypes among the 30 IDDM probands. The C4-B3 gene therefore seems to be a valuable marker for IDDM. No haplotype containing HLA-DR3 was increased in frequency among the IDDM probands. The extended haplotype [HLA-B7, C2-1, C4-A3B1, Bf-S, HLA-DR2] present among the controls was absent in the IDDM probands. The frequency of the extended haplotype [HLA-B15, C2-1, C4-A3B3, Bf-S, HLA-DR4] was increased also among the parents to the IDDM probands compared to those of the control parents, whereas the frequency of [HLA-B7, C2-1, C4-A3B1, Bf-S, HLA-DR2] was decreased. The extended haplotype [HLA-B8, C2-1, C4-B1, Bf-S, HLA-DR3] was more common among the males (p less than 0.05) compared to the females in the total material. The family analysis showed that 3 out of 5 affected sibs shared both haplotypes with their IDDM proband. This was the case for only 3 out of 35 unaffected sibs.