Liquid biopsy has been taken as a minimally invasive examination and a promising surrogate to the clinically applied tissue-based test for the diagnosis and molecular analysis of cancer. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) carry complex molecular information from the tumor, allowing for the multicomponent analysis of cancer and would be beneficial to personalized medicine. In this review, the advanced nanomaterials and nanotechniques for the detection and molecular profiling of EVs, highlight the advantages of nanotechnology in the high-purity isolation and the high-sensitive and high-specific identification of EVs, are summarized. An outlook on the clinical application of nanotechnology-based liquid biopsy in the diagnosis, prognostication, and surveillance of cancer is also provided. It provides information for developing liquid biopsy based on EVs by discussing the advantages and challenges of functionalized nanomaterials and various nanotechnologies.
Keywords: cancer diagnosis; extracellular vesicle; liquid biopsy; nanomaterial; nanotechnology.
© 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.