Mayaro virus (MAYV, Togaviridae) and Oropouche orthobunyavirus (OROV, Peribunyaviridae) are emerging enzootic arboviruses in Latin America. Outbreaks of febrile illness associated with MAYV and OROV have been reported among humans mainly in the northern region of Brazil since the 1980s, and recent data suggest these viruses have circulated also in more populated areas of western Brazil. MAYV shares mosquito vectors with yellow fever virus and it has been historically detected during yellow fever epidemics. Aiming to investigate the transmission of OROV and MAYV at the human-animal interface during a yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika outbreaks in Brazil, we conducted a retrospective molecular investigation in 810 wild and domestic animals, 106 febrile patients, and 22.931 vectors collected from 2016 to 2018 in Cuiaba and Campo Grande metropolitan regions, western Brazil. All samples tested negative for OROV and MAYV RNA by RT-qPCR. Findings presented here suggest no active circulation of MAYV and OROV in the sampled hosts. Active surveillance and retrospective investigations are instrumental approaches for the detection of cryptic and subclinical activity of enzootic arboviruses and together serve as a warning system to implement appropriate actions to prevent outbreaks.
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