Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign epithelial lesion of the genitourinary tract that arises from the reimplantation and proliferation of shed renal tubular cells in areas of urothelial injury and denudation. Fibromyxoid nephrogenic adenoma is a rare variant that consists of compressed spindle-shaped renal epithelial cells in a fibromyxoid background. Only 14 observations of this variant are reported in the literature. We performed a retrospective analysis of fibromyxoid nephrogenic adenomas from 3 large reference centers. We identified 43 lesions in 6 women and 36 men (2 in 1 man) with a median age of 72 years (range, 31 to 94 y). Median lesion size was 0.7 cm (range, 0.2 to 5 cm). Nephrogenic adenomas were in the bladder (n=15), prostate/prostatic urethra (n=14), kidney (n=7), ureter (n=3), penile urethra (n=3), and urethral diverticulum (n=1). One of the kidney lesions developed in an end-stage kidney and radiologically mimicked cancer. Of 37 patients with information, 36 had predisposing conditions including prior biopsy, transurethral resection of bladder tumor, resection, Foley catheter, BCG treatment, urinary stones, (chemo)radiation, or diverticulum. Only 4/37 (10.8%) had a history of prior irradiation. Fifteen lesions had pure fibromyxoid morphology and 28 were admixed classic and fibromyxoid patterns. Three nephrogenic adenomas involved prostatic stroma, 3 renal sinus fat, 2 muscularis propria (1 bladder, 1 renal pelvis), 1 perinephric fat, and 1 corpus spongiosum. Ten fibromyxoid nephrogenic adenomas were intermixed with urothelial carcinoma, 1 with prostate adenocarcinoma, and 1 with malignant melanoma. By immunohistochemistry, PAX8 was positive in all the examined lesions (n=31). Napsin A was negative in all examined fibromyxoid nephrogenic adenomas (n=30). Twenty of them had classic nephrogenic adenoma component which was positive for napsin A. Similar to classic nephrogenic adenoma, fibromyxoid nephrogenic adenoma can occur anywhere along the urinary tract and is associated with a prior history that causes urothelial injury. In nearly a quarter of the cases, fibromyxoid nephrogenic adenoma extended beyond the lamina propria. Unlike previously suggested, fibromyxoid nephrogenic adenoma is not specifically related to prior radiation therapy. Awareness of this variant is important to avoid misdiagnosis and overtreatment.
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