Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2022 Dec;45(4):639-661. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2022.07.010. Epub 2022 Oct 14.


Cognitive impairment and dementia affect dozens of millions of people worldwide and cause significant distress to patients and caregivers and a financial burden to families and health care systems. Careful history-taking, cognitive and physical examination, and supplemental neuroimaging and fluid-based biomarkers can accurately diagnose neurocognitive disorders. Management includes non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatments tailored to the etiology and to the individual.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Assessment; Dementia; Frontotemporal dementia; Mild cognitive impairment (MCI); Neurocognitive disorder; Treatment; Vascular dementia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Caregivers / psychology
  • Cognitive Dysfunction* / diagnosis
  • Cognitive Dysfunction* / epidemiology
  • Cognitive Dysfunction* / therapy
  • Dementia* / diagnosis
  • Dementia* / epidemiology
  • Dementia* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Neurocognitive Disorders
  • Neuroimaging