Recently, the concept of personalized nutrition has been developed, which states that food components do not always lead to the same metabolic responses, but vary from person to person. Although this concept has been studied based on individual genetic backgrounds, researchers have recently explored its potential role in the gut microbiome. The gut microbiota physiologically communicates with humans by forming a bidirectional relationship with the micronutrients, macronutrients, and phytochemicals consumed by the host. Furthermore, the gut microbiota can vary from person to person and can be easily shifted by diet. Therefore, several recent studies have reported the application of personalized nutrition to intestinal microflora. This review provides an overview of the interaction of diet with the gut microbiome and the latest evidence in understanding the inter-individual differences in dietary responsiveness according to individual baseline gut microbiota and microbiome-associated dietary intervention in diseases. The diversity of the gut microbiota and the presence of specific microorganisms can be attributed to physiological differences following dietary intervention. The difference in individual responsiveness based on the gut microbiota has the potential to become an important research approach for personalized nutrition and health management, although further well-designed large-scale studies are warranted.
Keywords: Diet; enterotype; gut microbiota; human health; personalized nutrition.