Mitochondria are increasingly recognized as cellular hubs to orchestrate signaling pathways that regulate metabolism, redox homeostasis, and cell fate decisions. Recent research revealed a role of mitochondria also in innate immune signaling; however, the mechanisms of how mitochondria affect signal transduction are poorly understood. Here, we show that the NF-κB pathway activated by TNF employs mitochondria as a platform for signal amplification and shuttling of activated NF-κB to the nucleus. TNF treatment induces the recruitment of HOIP, the catalytic component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), and its substrate NEMO to the outer mitochondrial membrane, where M1- and K63-linked ubiquitin chains are generated. NF-κB is locally activated and transported to the nucleus by mitochondria, leading to an increase in mitochondria-nucleus contact sites in a HOIP-dependent manner. Notably, TNF-induced stabilization of the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 furthermore contributes to signal amplification by antagonizing the M1-ubiquitin-specific deubiquitinase OTULIN. Overall, our study reveals a role for mitochondria in amplifying TNF-mediated NF-κB activation, both serving as a signaling platform, as well as a transport mode for activated NF-κB to the nuclear.
Keywords: HOIP; NEMO; OTULIN; PINK1; ubiquitin.
© 2022 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.