Environmental and bioclimatic factors influencing yeasts and molds distribution along European shores

Sci Total Environ. 2023 Feb 10;859(Pt 1):160132. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160132. Epub 2022 Nov 16.


The present study employed data collected during the Mycosands survey to investigate the environmental factors influencing yeasts and molds distribution along European shores applying a species distribution modelling approach. Occurrence data were compared to climatic datasets (temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation), soil datasets (chemical and physical properties), and water datasets (temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll-a concentration) downloaded from web databases. Analyses were performed by MaxEnt software. Results suggested a different probability of distribution of yeasts and molds along European shores. Yeasts seem to tolerate low temperatures better during winter than molds and this reflects a higher suitability for the Northern European coasts. This difference is more evident considering suitability in waters. Both distributions of molds and yeasts are influenced by basic soil pH, probably because acidic soils are more favorable to bacterial growth. Soils with high nitrogen concentrations are not suitable for fungal growth, which, in contrast, are optimal for plant growth, favored by this environment. Finally, molds show affinity with soil rich in nickel and yeasts with soils rich in cadmium resulting in a distribution mainly at the mouths of European rivers or lagoons, where these metals accumulate in river sediments.

Keywords: Environmental factors; Molds; Sand; Spatial distribution modelling; Water; Yeasts.

MeSH terms

  • Cadmium / analysis
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Metals / analysis
  • Rivers* / chemistry
  • Soil / chemistry
  • Soil Pollutants* / analysis
  • Yeasts


  • Soil
  • Cadmium
  • Soil Pollutants
  • Metals