Postconcussional Syndrome: Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment

Neurol Clin. 2023 Feb;41(1):161-176. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2022.08.003. Epub 2022 Oct 31.


Diagnosis and treatment of postconcussional syndrome (PCS) is challenging because symptoms are vague, difficult to confirm, and attributable to other conditions. There are no uniformly accepted diagnostic PCS criteria. Clinical care largely focuses on symptom reduction and management. Moreover, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased the challenge because post-acute COVID-19 syndrome symptoms overlap with PCS. Future research should center on base rates of PCS-type symptoms in nonneurological samples and the identification and improved understanding of moderating variables contributing to the frequency, intensity, and duration of PCS symptoms.

Keywords: Concussion; Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI); Neuropsychology; Postconcussion/postconcussional syndrome (PCS); Postconcussional disorder (PCD).

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19*
  • Humans
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Post-Concussion Syndrome* / etiology