Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-established and widely used technique to characterize and quantify skeletal and cardiac muscle changes in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Recently, MRI has been explored to study disease progression and response to gene therapy in the canine DMD model. Using traditional sequences, delayed gadolinium enhancement, novel sequences, and spectroscopy, investigators have begun to (i) establish the baseline MRI characteristics of the muscles in normal and affected dogs and (ii) evaluate gene therapy outcomes in treated dogs. As a noninvasive assay, MRI offers an excellent opportunity to study longitudinal muscle changes in long-term gene therapy studies in the canine model. In this chapter, we outline the MRI method used to study DMD in the canine model.
Keywords: Canine model; Cardiac muscle; DMD; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; Heart; MRI; Magnetic resonance imaging; Skeletal muscle; Spectroscopy.
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