Examining the role of cannabinoids on osteoporosis: a review

Arch Osteoporos. 2022 Nov 19;17(1):146. doi: 10.1007/s11657-022-01190-x.


Purpose: Prior research studies have shown that the endocannabinoid system, influenced by CBD and THC, plays a role in bone remodeling. As both the research on cannabis and use of cannabis continue to grow, novel medicinal uses of both its constituents as well as the whole plant are being discovered. This review examines the role of cannabinoids on osteoporosis, more specifically, the endocannabinoid system and its role in bone remodeling and the involvement of the cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 in bone health, as well as the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and synthetic cannabinoids on bone.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search of online databases including PUBMED was utilized.

Results: A total of 29 studies investigating the effects of cannabis and/or its constituents as well as the activation or inactivation of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 were included and discussed.

Conclusion: While many of the mechanisms are still not yet fully understood, both preclinical and clinical studies show that the effects of cannabis mediated through the endocannabinoid system may prove to be an effective treatment option for individuals with osteoporosis.

Keywords: Bone; Cannabidiol (CBD); Cannabinoids; Cannabis; Osteoporosis; Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cannabidiol* / pharmacology
  • Cannabidiol* / therapeutic use
  • Cannabinoids* / pharmacology
  • Cannabinoids* / therapeutic use
  • Cannabis*
  • Dronabinol / pharmacology
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Humans
  • Osteoporosis* / drug therapy
  • Receptors, Cannabinoid


  • Cannabinoids
  • Endocannabinoids
  • Dronabinol
  • Cannabidiol
  • Receptors, Cannabinoid