Identification of diagnostic genes for both Alzheimer's disease and Metabolic syndrome by the machine learning algorithm

Front Immunol. 2022 Nov 2;13:1037318. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.1037318. eCollection 2022.


Background: Alzheimer's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is the most common metabolic and endocrine disease in the elderly. Some studies have suggested a possible association between MetS and AD, but few studied genes that have a co-diagnostic role in both diseases.

Methods: The microarray data of AD (GSE63060 and GSE63061 were merged after the batch effect was removed) and MetS (GSE98895) in the GEO database were downloaded. The WGCNA was used to identify the co-expression modules related to AD and MetS. RF and LASSO were used to identify the candidate genes. Machine learning XGBoost improves the diagnostic effect of hub gene in AD and MetS. The CIBERSORT algorithm was performed to assess immune cell infiltration MetS and AD samples and to investigate the relationship between biomarkers and infiltrating immune cells. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) single-cell RNA (scRNA) sequencing data from patients with AD and normal individuals were visualized with the Seurat standard flow dimension reduction clustering the metabolic pathway activity changes each cell with ssGSEA.

Results: The brown module was identified as the significant module with AD and MetS. GO analysis of shared genes showed that intracellular transport and establishment of localization in cell and organelle organization were enriched in the pathophysiology of AD and MetS. By using RF and Lasso learning methods, we finally obtained eight diagnostic genes, namely ARHGAP4, SNRPG, UQCRB, PSMA3, DPM1, MED6, RPL36AL and RPS27A. Their AUC were all greater than 0.7. Higher immune cell infiltrations expressions were found in the two diseases and were positively linked to the characteristic genes. The scRNA-seq datasets finally obtained seven cell clusters. Seven major cell types including CD8 T cell, monocytes, T cells, NK cell, B cells, dendritic cells and macrophages were clustered according to immune cell markers. The ssGSEA revealed that immune-related gene (SNRPG) was significantly regulated in the glycolysis-metabolic pathway.

Conclusion: We identified genes with common diagnostic effects on both MetS and AD, and found genes involved in multiple metabolic pathways associated with various immune cells.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; XGBost; immune infiltration; machine learning algorithm; metabolic syndrome; single cell sequencing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Algorithms
  • Alzheimer Disease* / genetics
  • Alzheimer Disease* / metabolism
  • Biomarkers
  • Humans
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism
  • Machine Learning
  • Metabolic Syndrome* / genetics
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases*
  • snRNP Core Proteins


  • Biomarkers
  • SNRPG protein, human
  • snRNP Core Proteins